Enhancing Self-Efficacy: Pathway to Improve Academic Achievement Motivation

DOI: https://doi.org/10.56173/BJCP.2021.1104

Authors

  • Pratibha Asstt Professor,PG dept of Psychology, DAV college, Sector 10, Chandigarh. Email for correspondence: pratibhadhundia@gmail.com
  • Vandana Sharma Retd. Dean and Professor, Panjabi University, Patiala

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.56173/BJCP.2021.1104

Keywords:

Adolescent, Self-Efficacy, Academic Motivation

Abstract

The present research aimed to study the effect of self-efficacy and gender pattern on intrinsic, extrinsic and amotivation-motivational orientations of academic achievement motivation among adolescents. A sample of 102 students (51males and 51 females), in the age-range of 14-17 years, was selected randomly from various educational institutions of tri-city (Chandigarh, Mohali and Panchkula).The measures used were Self-Efficacy Questionnaire for Children (Muris, 2001) and Achievement Motivation Scale-School Version (Vallerand et. al., 1992). A 2X2 factorial design was used to analyze the data. The analysis indicated that highly efficacious students were intrinsically motivated than did their counterparts. However, students who have no faith in their capabilities were extrinsically motivated and amotivated. Furthermore, gender differentiation and interaction effect did not make any contribution to the motivational orientations of achievement motivation. It seems logical to understand that poor belief in one’s ability is a driving component of feeling disinterested towards academic activities. It is noteworthy that amotivation which reflects strong feeling of incompetence and expectancies of uncontrollability is highly detrimental for school achievement. These findings can serve to provide practical guidelines for designing of interventions to enhance self-efficacy and achievement motivation.

Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

References

Ahmed, W., & Bruinsma, M. (2006). A Structural Model of Self-Concept, Autonomous Motivation and Academic Performance in Cross-Cultural Perspective. Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology, 10(4), 551-572.

Ahuja, A. (2016). A Study of Self-Efficacy among Secondary School Students in relation to Educational Aspiration and Academic Achievement. Educational Quest: An international Journal of Education and Applied Social Sciences, 7(3), 275-283.

Akram, B., & Ghazanfar, L. (2014). Self- efficacy and academic performance of the students of Gujarat university, Pakistan. Academic Research International, 5(1), 283-290.

Azzam, A. (2007). Why students drop out. Educational Leadership, 64(7), 91-93.

Bain, K. (2004). What the best college teachers do. Harvard University Press

Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs. New Jersey: Earlbaum.

Bandura, A. (1997). Self-Efficacy: The Exercise of Control. NY: W. H. Freeman and Company

Bandura, A., Pastorelli, C., Barbaranelli, C., & Caprara, G. V. (1999). Self-Efficacy Pathways to Childhood Depression. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 76, 258–269.

Bedel, E.F. (2016). Exploring Academic Motivation, Academic Self-efficacy and Attitudes toward Teaching in Pre-service Early Childhood Education Teachers. Journal of Education and Training Studies, 4(1), 142-149.

Biehler, R. F., & Snowman, J. (1990). Psychology Applied to Teaching (6th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin

Brouse, C. H., Basch, C. E., LeBlanc, M., McKnight, K. R., & Lei, T. (2010). College students' academic motivation: differences by gender, class, and source of payment. College Quarterly, 13(1), 1-10.

Brown, B.L. (2010). The Impact of Self-Efficacy and Motivation Characteristics on the Academic Achievement of Upward Bound Participants. Dissertations. 390. https://aquila.usm.edu/dissertations/390

Campbell, M. M. (2007). Motivational systems theory and the academic performance of college students. Journal of College Teaching & Learning, 4(7), 11-24.

Cerasoli, C. P., Nicklin, J. M., & Ford, M. T. (2014, February 3). Intrinsic Motivation and

Extrinsic Incentives Jointly Predict Performance: A 40-Year Meta-Analysis. Psychological

Bulletin. Advance online publication. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0035661

Chowdhury, S. M., & Shahabuddin, M. A. (2007). Self-efficacy, Motivation and their Relationship to Academic Performance of Bangladesh College Students. College Qurtely,10 (1), 1-10.

Corpus, J. H., McClintic-Gilbert, M. S., & Hayenga, A. O. (2009). Within-year changes in

children’s intrinsic and extrinsic motivational orientations: Contextual predictors and

academic outcomes. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 34, 154-166.

Cokley, K.O., Bernard, N., Cunningham, D., & Motoike, J. (2001). A psychometric investigation of the academic motivation scale using a United States sample. Measurement and Evaluation in Counselling and Development, 34,109-119.

Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1985). Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behaviour. Springer Science & Business Media.

Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1995). Human autonomy: The basis for true self-esteem. In M. Kemis (Ed.), Efficacy, agency, and self-esteem (pp. 31–49). New York: Plenum.

Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2000). The “what” and “why” of goal pursuits: Human needs and the self-determination of behaviour. Psychological Inquiry, 11, 227–268.

Deci, E. L., Vallerand, R. J., Pelletier, L. G., & Ryan, R. M. (1991). Motivation and education: The self-determination perspective. Educational Psychologist, 26, 325–346.

DeLong, M., & Winter, D. (2002). Strategies for motivating students. Washington, D. C.: Mathematical Association of America.

Dweck, C. S. (1975). The role of expectations and attributions in the alleviation of learned helplessness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 31, 674–685.

Erikson, E. H. (1968). Identity: Youth and crisis. New York, NY: Norton

Glass, R., & Rose, M. (2008). Tune out, turn off, drop out. American Teacher, 93(3), 8-21.

Gottfried, A. E. (1985). Academic intrinsic motivation in elementary and junior high school

students. Journal of Educational Psychology, 77, 631-645.

Gottfried, A. E., Fleming, J. S., & Gottfried, A. W. (2001). Continuity of academic intrinsic

motivation from childhood through late adolescence: A longitudinal study. Journal of Educational Psychology, 93, 3-13.

Gnambs, T. & Hanfstingl, B. (2015). The Decline of Academic Motivation During Adolescence: An Accelerated Longitudinal Cohort Analysis on the Effect of Psychological Need Satisfaction. Educational Psychology, DOI: 10.1080/01443410.2015.1113236

Green-Demers, I., & Pelletier, D. (2003). Motivation, goals, and future perspectives of high school students of the Outaouais area (Vol. 1–14). Gatineau, Quebec, Canada: Universite´ du Que´becen Outaouais

Guay, F., Morin, A. S., Litalien, D., Valois, P., & Vallerand, R. J. (2015). Application of exploratory structural equation modeling to evaluate the academic motivation scale. Journal of Experimental Education, 83(1), 51-82.

Hasan, M., & Parvez, M. (2019). Effect of self-efficacy, gender and locale on academic achievement of secondary school students. International Journal of Scientific Research and Reviews. 8 (2), 1881-1894.

Harter, S. (1981). A new self-report scale of intrinsic versus extrinsic orientation in the

classroom: motivational and informational components. Developmental Psychology, 17, 300-312.

Hibbs, D.F. (2012). An Investigation of the Self-Efficacy Beliefs of Black and Hispanic Students that have Experienced Success or Failure in Mathematics (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from http://scholarship.shu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2843&context=dissertations, Holloway.

Huang, C. (2013). Gender differences in academic self-efficacy: a meta-analysis. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 28(1), 1-35

Husain, U.K. (2014). Relationship between Self-Efficacy and Academic Motivation. International Conference on Economics and Humanities (ICEEH”14) December 10-11, Bali, Indonesia.

Ibrahim A., & Ibrahim H. (2017). Self-efficacy, Positive Thinking, Gender Difference as Predictors of Academic Achievement in Al Jouf University Students-Saudi Arabia, International Journal of Psychology and Behavioral Sciences, 7 (6), 143-151.

Janosz, M., Archambault, I., Morizot, J., & Pagani, L. (2008). School engagement trajectories and their differential predictive relations to dropout. Journal of Social Issues, 64, 21-40.

Kalpana Kumari (2019). A Study of achievement motivation and self-efficacy of higher secondary school students in relation to their academic performance. (Doctoral thesis) Retrieved from http://krishikosh.egranth.ac.in/handle/1/5810098222

Kaushik, N., & Rani, S. ( 2005 ). A Comparative study of achievement motivation, home

environment and parent child relationship of adolescents. Journal of Psychological research, 49, 189-194.

Legault, L., & Green Demers, I., Pelletier, L. (2006). Why do high school students lack motivation in the classroom? Toward an understanding of amotivation and the role of social support. Journal of Educational Psychology, 98(3), 567–582.

Long, J. F., Monoi, S., Harper, B., Knoblauch, D., & Murphy, P. K. (2007). Academic motivation and achievement among urban adolescents. Urban education, 42(3), 196-222.

McGeown, S. P., Putwain, D., Simpson, E.G., Boffey, E., Markham, J., & Vince, A. (2014). Predictors of adolescents' academic motivation: Personality, self-efficacy and adolescents' characteristics. Learning and Individual Differences, 32, 278-286.

Multon, K. D., Brown, S. D., & Lent, R. W. (1991). Relation of self-efficacy beliefs to

academic outcomes: A meta-analytic investigation. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 38 (1), 30-38.

Muris, P. (2001). A brief questionnaire for measuring self-efficacy in youths. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 23, 145–149.

Nagarathnamma, B., & Rao, V. T. (2007). Achievement motivation and academic achievement of adolescent Boys and Girls. Indian Psychological Review, 68, 131 – 136.

Naik, D., & Kiran, D. A. (2018). Emotional Intelligence and Achievement Motivation Among College Students. Indian Journal of Health and Wellbeing, 9 (1), 86-88.

Nejad, E. H., & Khani, S.S. (2014). Studying the interaction of gender and self-efficacy (high & low) on the academic achievement of students in third grade. Bulletin of Environment, Pharmachology and life sciences,3 (Spl issue II), 67-72.

Pajares, F. (1996). Self-efficacy beliefs in academic settings. Review of Educational Research, 66(4), 543-578.

Pajares, F., & Miller, M. D. (1994). Role of self-efficacy and self-concept beliefs in mathematical problem solving: A path analysis. Journal of Educational Psychology, 86(2), 193.

Perry, J.C., DeWine, D. B., Duffy, R. D., & Vance, K.S. (2007).The Academic self-efficacy of urban youth:A mixed-methods study of a school-to-work program. Journal of Career Development, 34(2),103-126.

Rusilo, C. T. M., & Arias, P.F.C. (2004). Gender differences in Academic motivation of secondary school students. Electronic Journal of Research in Educational psychology, 2 (1), 97-112.

Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic

motivation, social development, and well-being. American Psychologist, 55, 68-78.

Şahin, H., & Çakar, E. (2011). Egitim fakultesi ogrencilerinin öğrenme stratejileri ve akademik güdülenme düzeylerinin academic başarıya etkisi. Journal of Turkish Educational Sciences, 9(3), 519-540.

Sharma, H.L., & Rani, R. (2014). Relationship of personal growth initiative with self-efficacy among university postgraduate students. Journal of Education and Practice, 4 (16), 125-135.

Shekhar, C., & Devi, R. (2012). Achievement motivation across gender and different

academic majors. Journal of Educational and Developmental Psychology, 2(2), 105-109.

Snyder, T., & Hoffman, C. (2002). Academic amotivation and social support. Digest of Educational Statistics 2001581(NCES Publication No. 2002–130). Washington, DC: National Centre for Education Statistics.

Steinmayr, R., & Spinath, B. (2009). The importance of motivation as a predictor of school achievement. Learning and Individual Differences, 19, 80-90.

Stover, et al. (2012). Psychology Research and Behaviour Management. Dove Medical Press 5, 71–83.

Tenaw, Y. A. (2013). Relationship between self-efficacy, academic achievement and gender in analytical chemistry at Debre Markos college of teacher education. African Journal of Chemical Education, 3, 3–28.

Vallerand, R. J., Blais, M. R., Briere, N. M., & Pelletier, L. G. (1989). Construction and validation of the Academic Motivation Scale (AMS). Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science.21, 323–349.

Vallerand, R. J., Pelletier, L. G., Blais, M. R., Briere, N. M., Senecal, C., & Vallieres, E. F. (1992). The academic motivation scale: A measure of intrinsic, extrinsic, and amotivation in education. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 52(4), 1003-1017.

Vallerand, R. J., Pelletier, L. G., Blais, M. R., Briere, N. M., Senecal, C., & Vallieres, E. F. (1993). On the assessment of intrinsic, extrinsic, and amotivation in education: Evidence on the concurrent and construct validity of the Academic Motivation Scale. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 53, 159–172.

Vera, E. M., Shin, R. Q., Mongomery, G. P., Midner, C., & Speight, S. L. (2004). Conflict resolution styles, self-efficacy, self-control, and future orientation of urban adolescents. Professional School of Counselling, 8, 73–81.

Walker, C., Greene, B., & Mansell, R. (2006). Identification with academics, intrinsic/extrinsic motivation, and self-efficacy as predictors of cognitive engagement. Learning and Individual Differences, 16(1), 1- 12.

Wigfield, A. (1988). Children’s attributions for success and failure: Effects of age and attentional focus. Journal of Educational Psychology, 80, 76–81.

Published

2021-07-31

How to Cite

Pratibha, & Sharma, V. (2021). Enhancing Self-Efficacy: Pathway to Improve Academic Achievement Motivation: DOI: https://doi.org/10.56173/BJCP.2021.1104. Bharatiya Journal of Counselling Psychology, 1(1). https://doi.org/10.56173/BJCP.2021.1104